No Low Threshold

What about short-term exposure?

Expert Professor Mark Z. Jacobson of Stanford University wrote to the California Coastal Commission on the subject of wood-burning fires on beaches,

One rule of thumb, based on epidemiological data is that there is no low threshold level to the health effects (including mortality) of small air pollution particles (PM2.5).
Short term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increases in hospitalizations, emergency-room visits, and mortality, primarily to those most susceptible, including the elderly, asthmatics, young children, and those who are already weak from illness or poor health.
- Professor Mark Z. Jacobson, Stanford University

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